At the turn of the 1900s, problems with the photoelectric effect, and black body radiation began to suggest that light exhibited particle like properties. This led to the idea that it can behave both as a wave and as a particle, which became a central theme to modern quantum theory. However, this also produced many other problems, such as, the observer effect, and the notion that time goes backwards. Is there an alternative to wave particle duality that can resolve all of these problems, and return a sense of normality to scientific enquiry?


Wave-particle duality arises out of the fact that light appears to exhibit qualities that cannot be explained by the laws of classic electromagnetism. After Thomas Young first conducted the double slit experiment in 1801, it seemed like the wavelike nature of light had finally been established. However, when the results of the spectral radiance of black bodies, and the fact that the photoelectric effect seems to be frequency dependant, the laws of classical magnetism started to fail. This led to the proposal by Albert Einstein that light could also act as a particle.

In this article, we explore the history of light, and resolve its nature of wave-particle duality. By producing simple solutions to the Photoelectric Effect, and the Ultraviolet Catastrophe, we can resolve the need for a particle of light, and reintroduce the notion of the Aether as a 4D quantum field, which was discovered in 1964. The Cosmic Microwave Background.

KEy Points

  • The use of geometry, and the idea of an Aether has been largly accepted until the arrival of the quantum age.
  • The wave solution to the Ultraviolet catastrophe, and Photoelectric effect, removes the need for the particle of light
  • The cosmic Microwave Background is the mssing Aether that now unifies the laws of electromagnetism with the nature of 4D geomtry
Da Vinci school

Da Vinci School

Sign up for our Da Vinci School to access free online courses and explore the fascinating world of compass construction. Simplify complex knowledge through creative learning and make beautiful art!

The history of Light

The ancient greeks

The concept of light has been with us for as far back as we can remember. In the Biblical story of 7 days of creation, the first act of god is to divided light from the darkness. In the Vedic teachings, with find the light emerges from the Supreme Being, and is personified as the primordial god Surya. However, it was the Ancient Greeks who first began to study its nature. For the most part, the concept of light revolved around its metaphysical nature. It was the great Geometrician, Euclid, in around 300 BC, in his work on optics that is the oldest known text to mathematically study the nature of vision. His theory was the first attempt to understand the nature of perspective as rectilinear lines, which he believed protruded from the eye. He suggested that these rays move very quickly, but are discrete, allowing for small objects to exists beyond our visual perception.

Hero of Alexandria (10–70AD) inspired by the ideas of Euclid determined the first laws of reflection, suggesting that light travelled the shortest path. This was consolidated by Ptolemy (90–168AD), in his work on optics, where he studied the nature of reflection, refraction, and optical illusions. 

However, all of these great thinkers held the same view that light arose from the eye. The exception seems to be Aristotle, who describes experiments in optics using a camera obscura. The apparatus consisted of a dark chamber with a small aperture that let light in. With it, he saw that whatever shape he made the hole, the sun’s image always remained circular. He also noted that increasing the distance between the aperture and the image surface magnified the image. It is clear that our early explorations of light had much to do with the nature of geometry. However, at this point the focus was a metaphysical approach from the perspective of human consciousness, as an observer.

Islamic golden Age

After the fall of Alexandra, the scientific enquiry into optic resurfaced in the Golden age of the Muslim tradition. Al-Kindi (800–873AD) worked to translate the writings of Aristotle, Plato, Euclid, and other Greek mathematicians and scientists into Arabic. His own work looked at the nature of vision, reflection, refraction, and shadows, through which he developed experimental proof based on geometric principles. It was Ibn Sahl (940–1000AD) who first challenged the idea that light came from the human eye. He suggested that visual fire would not be able to reach remote objects, as it would have to fill an enormous space each time we opened our eyes. He also suggested that discrete rays may leave large areas of a distant object unobservable. Incredibly, it seems that he also presented an analysis of how hyperbolic glass lenses bend and focus light, through a geometric argument based on the sine law of refraction, 600 year before Willebrord Snellius (1580–1626) derived it in the west.

However, it was Alhazen, who is believed by many to have had the greatest influence on our modern interpretation of light. He demonstrated this by shining light from two lanterns through two different holes into a darkened room. This produce two spots on the wall. When one lantern was covered, that particular spot disappeared. He was also able to explain why the image appeared upside down. He was also the first to deduced that the curvature of a lens produces magnification which takes place at the surface of the lens, and not within it. These and many other great Arabic Scholars are renowned for their contribution to the laws of geometry, which, through simple logic, were able to deduce that light originated outside ourselves, from the universe at large.

The Renaissance of the West

It wasn’t until the 1600s, with the developments of the microscope and telescope, that the theory of light began to be investigated from the perspective of physics rather than human vision. With the publication in 1543 of Nicholaus Copernicus’s De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, a new age of science began to emerge. It was Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) who was the first to examine the geometry of radiation in three-dimensional terms. Kepler published his theory of vision in 1604, which went on to inspire a whole generation of scientific exploration. He was the first to establish the idea that light expanded as a spherical wave, and suggest the inverse square law, which is related to the radius of the sphere. However, it was René Descartes (1590–1650) who was the first to explore the physical properties of light. He believed that light was a disturbance that travelled through the plenum (Aether), like a wave that travels through water. We find that this notion of the Aether was first considered by the philosophers of Ancient Greece, and was ascribed to the Dodecahedron. The rediscovery of the 5 Platonic solids, and the 13 Archimedean Solids by Kepler brought back much of the geometric thinking of the Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Johannes Kepler

Ole Rømer (1644-1710) was the first to discover that light had a finite speed in 1676. By measuring the time difference of the orbit of Io, a moon of Jupiter, at various times of the year. He used this time difference, to determine that light had a definite speed. However, the view that light had a finite speed was not generally accepted until more accurate measurements were made by James Bradley in 1727. 

It was Isaac Newton (1642-1726) who was the first to prove that light from the sun contains all the colours of the rainbow. It is surprising to some that he was a proponent of the corpuscular (particle) theory of light, despite evidence that light exhibited wavelike properties. The success of Newtonian mechanics is based on the movement of bodies through space. Similarly, the idea that light consisted of tiny particles seemed to explain the recombination of coloured light back into white light. This was in opposition to the wave theory of light that we suggested by Christian Huygens (1629–1695) who released his results in his Traite de la Lumiere (Treatise on Light) in 1690. Huygens’s principle describes the propagation of a wave as the interference of secondary wavelets arising from point sources on the wavefront. Each portion of the Aether collides with all the surrounding waves. This creates another secondary wave.

One of the proponents of the wave theory was Robert Hooke who ended up being a fierce rival of Newton. He claimed Newton had stolen some of his ideas, and challenged him on his particle theory of light, which Newton did not publish until after Hooke’s death.

The electric Age

Due to the success of Newton’s theories of Mechanics, the idea of light as a particle remained at the forefront of scientific thinking until the beginning of the 1800s. Thomas Young (1773–1829) was the first to produce experimental evidence that directly contradicted this notion of the particle like nature of light. To do this, he created two small slits through which he shone a ray of light, which was projected on the surface. The result was an interference pattern, that could only be indicative of the wavelike nature of light. At the time, the theory was not openly accepted, despite the fact that Young had manage to calculate the wavelengths of each of the colours of light found in the visible spectrum.

However, in 1819, Augustin Jean Fresnel (1788–1827) presented his work on wave theory of diffraction before the French Academy of Sciences, and won the competition by performing an experiment that created a spot of light, now known as “Poisson spot”, in the centre of the shadow. He then went on to formulate a theory of polarisation. By creating circularly polarized light, he was able to prove that light was a transverse wave. When James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) produced his famous equations of electromagnetism, he discovered the electromagnetic spectrum, and unified the propagation of electromagnetic waves with the speed of light, which became the decisive blow that finally established the wavelike qualities of light.

We find that one inventor and pioneer in the sphere of electricity is very rarely mentioned in the context of developing the wave theory of light. In 1892, Nikola Tesla stood in front of the royal society and demonstrated the wireless transmission of energy. Holding two fluorescent tubes in his hands, he switched on his AC generator and caused them to glow, like magic. 

It is amazing to think that this had so little impact on the scientific community of Europe. Instead, the Einsteinian view of the photon was promoted, to the effect that the work of Nicola Tesla became obscured. Shortly after his impressive demonstration, people such as J.P. Morgan, who were funding his projects, suddenly pulled out, and Tesla was never funded again. Many of his inventions were lost to either fire, or were dismantled for scrap to pay for his debts. It is interesting to note that 100 years later, the car company that bears his name now uses his AC motors to produce the world’s most powerful electric cars.

Nikola Tesla and Elon Musk

The quantum Age

By the turn of the 1900s, the laws of thermodynamics, classical mechanics, electromagnetism, and light seemed to be firmly understood. There were only a few problems that needed to be solved. Of great concern was the substance that could transmit a wave through the vacuum of space. Termed the Luminiferous Aether, the search for this elusive substance had avoided all detection. Repeated experiments by Michelson and Morley seemed to yield a negative result. Additionally, the law of classical magnetism seemed not to be able to predict the spectral radiance of a black body, termed the ultraviolet Catastrophe. Also, the emission of electrons from the surface of a material appeared to be related to frequency, a fact that should not be the case. If light was a wave, then the energy should be transferred to the medium as the energy built up on the surface of the material.

It was Max Planck (1858–1947) who created a mathematical framework by adding a fixed value into the equation, later call the Planck Constant, and was able to resolve the issue. Originally, Planck realised that the frequency of light could only be accounted for at specific ratios. When multiplied by this constant, each frequency of light could be ascribed a specific set of quantised values. However, the explanation as to why this should have its exact value still remains a mystery to this day.

The revival of the particle theory of light is due to Albert Einstein (1879–1955), who took Planck’s ideas and suggested that light might act as both a particle and a wave. In his 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect, Einstein postulated that light comes in discrete packets, termed quanta of energy. Based on this notion, the wave-particle duality of light gradually became accepted, as the ultimate solution to the structure of light.

When we review the history of light we notice that, with the except Newton and Einstein, all other descriptions have expressed the idea that light behaves like a wave, that expands in space. Even the geometric perspective of the Ancient Greeks and the Islamic Golden age followed the geometry of rectilinear lines that expand over distance. This notion that light travel through a substance, termed the Aether, is at the foundation of the wave nature of light. This was assumed to be true, but was never scientifically qualified at the time the photon was discovered. 

Yet, even modern quantum theory (QED) needs a field that is the basis of its operation. This is normally considered in terms of probability, due to the assumption that the partial is distributed over an undefined area. However, the wavelike nature of light has no such problem with the distribution of its energy over a wider area than a particle. Therefore, spherical electromagnetic waves do not need probability theory in order to establish the position of a particle, or even the superposition theory, which suggest the particle can be in two places at once. It just needs an Aether in which to exist.


Timeline of the evolution of light theory
Geometric Universe Book

Book out now!

The Geometric Universe – Beyond space and time

This book unveils the Geometric Theory of the cosmos, from the atom to the galaxy. Filled with intricate illustrations, it offers a concise exploration of the Multidimensional Universe, challenging our understanding of space, time, and existence.

The Aether

The concept of the Aether was suddenly dropped from science once the particle nature of the photon was established. The duality of wave and particle seemed to resolve the problem of how a light could move through the vacuum of space. Or so it seemed. Eventually, the Aether needed to be reinvented in order to explain the difficulty in defining the exact location of the electron. However, with the advent of probability introduced in 1927 by Werner Heisenberg, this new form of Aether would become a quantum field, whereby electrons, photons and other subatomic particles began to be described in more abstract terms. Whilst the name for the Aether had changed to the Quantum Field, the idea of examining its construct from a geometric perspective was never considered. This is surprising, as much of our successful work in the field of science has been directly attributed to an investigation that utilised geometry in some way.

The concept of the Aether under which Michelson and Morley conducted their investigation was under the assumption of an Aether wind. As the earth rotated in space, so light would be slowed down more in one direction than another. Using a device called an interferometer, a light beam could be split and reflected at a 90°. The cross could then be rotated to see if any variation in the fringe pattern could be detected. The failure of this experiment lead Einstein to postulate that the speed of light is constant throughout the whole universe.

However, these facts do not discredit the Aether theory. The consistency of the speed of light means that the concept of an Aether wind is not a valid description of the phenomena. When we consider the behaviour of the Aether from the perspective of 4D space, what we find is a new mechanism that can act to quantise the light wave. Furthermore, the translation into quantum field theory becomes quite a simple task. For example, an electron is considered as exhibiting a spin of a half. In terms of the quantum field, this object must be rotated twice (720°) in order to fulfil a single rotation (360°) in 3D space. In terms of the 4D dimension, this is easily explained as a ratio of the rotation of a 4D object.


The image above shows the rotation of a 4D hypercube. Notice that as it spins, the inner cube swaps places with the outer cube. In the case of the image above, a quarter turn switches the inner and outer cube once, and then after another quarter turn it changes again. Therefore, every 180° turn, it completes one full cycle of the ‘4D rotation’ of the cube on its x-axis. Just like a cube in 3D space, these ‘rotations’ can be placed in different ratios, so that a 720° rotation around one of the 3D axis (x, y, or z) could equate to a single rotation on the w-axis. 

This idea of rotation can be directly related to the idea of the quantised effect of quantum spin, found in quantum mechanics. However, such a 4D notion does not need the particle concept of the electron. Moreover, it is the geometry of space that quantises the light wave. This also resolves the problem of how an electron can jump from one shell to another. The quantised bands of the electron cloud are defined by a relatively simple geometric construct.

We can consider a 4D object, in many different ways. The Sphere, 5 Platonic solids, the Cuboctahedron, and its dual, are all represented in the 3D representations of the 6 regular 4D polytopes along with the Torus. By examining their nature, we find each fits together into a nested set, whereby the corners of one define the corners or centre face of another. These can be mapped against the geometric formation of the atomic orbitals. The result is a set of nested spheres, that almost exactly matches the experimental structure of the electron cloud. From these observations, we have formulated a new Atomic Geometry model, which begins to explain how a 4D Aether field is able to quantise reality.

When we compare this 4D Aether model to the idea of the Aether Wind, we can see why the Michelson–Morley experiment appears to fail so catastrophically. Geometrically, the assumption is that the Aether has a particle like nature which produces drag. A 4D Aether is a geometry that quantises time in 3D through its rotational quality. We notice that in comparison of the two models, the 4D Aether theory arises out of a higher level of dimensional thinking in terms of geometric principles. 

As we have expanded our horizon of the universe, 4D shapes, such as the torus, have been found throughout. From the Heliosphere, Oort cloud, and magnetic field of the sun, and planets, the nature of the universe appear structure by 4D spherical waves; torus fields. From light to gravitational waves, once we begin to expand our awareness toward 4D thinking, many of the quantum mysteries begin to find logical answers.

Aether wind vs D Aether
Whilst we can relate much of the discovered geometry of the atom, and universe to 4D objects like the torus, is there any other evidence of the Aether that might prove its existence? Surprisingly yes. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an energy field that is normally attributed to the Big Bang. However, closer inspection of its resonant spectral frequencies and wavelength reveals that it is geometrically related to the predicted sizes of the proton, neutron and electron.
The CMB was discovered in 1964, when Panzias and Wilson were experimenting with a large receiver. They reported an interference which seemed to be coming from everywhere. Had their discoveries come about at the time when science was still seeking the Aether, then this would have been automatically assumed the Aether had been found. It has an incredibly flat energy profile, which at first seemed baffling to scientist. By adding an accelerated expansion period into the theory of the Big Bang, a similar density distribution was modelled using computers. Subsequently, the CMB was used as evidence in support of the theory. However, this introduced more problems, such as dark matter, that should be able to react to adjust the expansion rate. Yet, the CMB can also be viewed as a 4D Aether, which begins to explain how a wave of light can be transmitted through the vacuum of space.
The idea of the shape of the universe is quite a novel thought for some people. However, the nature of space appears to be isotopic in nature. One part of space resembles another. This is easily explained by a 4D Aether theory. If the universe is considered as a single Torus field which exhibits different scales. Each Galaxy has been shown to exhibit a torus like nature. The stars that they comprised all exhibit an electromagnetic field, which is torus shaped. The same can be said of planets.

Whilst not accepted by mainstream science, the idea of the human aura is prevalent throughout various cultures on the earth. A Torus field that surrounds the human body, and all other animal, and even plant life. The division of a cell also employs the shape of the torus, forming a central column where are portion of DNS is magically replicated. In the theory of atomic geometry, both the shape and size of the atom is determined by various 4D forms. The 4D nature of space, and the Aether quite simply generates the framework for all of these phenomena found at vastly different scale of the universe to manifest.

Free Torus Meditation
Sign up to our Da Vinci School and gain access to our free 4D Torus meditation.
Toriflux Toy
Discover the 4D Torus through playful interaction. The Toriflux is available now in our shop.
Previous slide
Next slide

Solving quantised Reality

This concept of quantised reality implies that energy is always formed in discrete packets. We can add these units up to define the energy levels of the electron in different orbital shells. Each proton and electron has exactly the same amount of energy, which increases in sequential number to form all the atoms on the periodic table.

A 4D Aether quantises reality by the very nature of space, which is described by the simple laws of geometry. These create boundaries, which contain a specific unit of energy. When light waves strike the atom, a ‘photon’ or a wave of light at a particular frequency will be absorbed by the electron field. This initiates a 4D rotation, and the electron leaves, 3D space, moves into 4D as it cycles, and then re-enters 3D space at a higher energy level. The small cube has swapped places to become the larger one. The electron with ½ spin has rotated 360° to expand in its higher shell. In 3D, we do not see this transition, as rotation in a 4D space moves the cube out of our time frame. The electron just appears to jump as it re-enters our 3D reality. This movement from one state to the next renders ‘frames of time’ at the atomic scale. The ‘atomic timing’ is based on the rotation of a 4D object, which is unified or limited by the speed of light.

This interpretation changes the traditional concept of time, as all reality which is formed of atoms are continuously absorbing and emitting electromagnetic waves. In an interconnected 4D dance, the universe is
constantly expanding and contracting. The atomic structures emanate spherical waves of light which combined to form a wave front, a larger wave whose boundary is formed from smaller examples of itself.

In terms of light, we find that the rate of expansion of the spherical wave is limited to around 300,000 Km per second. This speed can be derived mathematically from the two scientific constants ε0 and μ0, that are factors of electromagnetic resistance found in the vacuum of space. The Vacuum is filled with the energy from the cosmic microwave background. As a light wave propagates through this Aether, its speed is maintained due to the rate of rotation of 4D space, which unifies time at the various scales of the universe.

This gives a slightly new perspective of relativistic theory of Einstein, as the component of time is driven by the spin dynamics of 4D space. This quantises both time and space into a unified moment, hence an experiment can be conducted in the universe at any location, with the same result. 

The speed of light remains constant as it is limited by the 4D Aether, which creates the rate of causality. This explains why a fast moving object will experience less time. As the observer accelerates toward the speed of light, so they will move through more ‘frames’ of the Aether than a stationary observer. Time dilation that occurs as we leave the surface of the Earth is due to the expansion of the circle (sphere). At high orbital altitude, the amount of space covered to perform one orbit is far greater, and the orbital speed can be much faster. 

Similarly, on the earths surface, observers at different latitudes move through different distances of space in a single day. Someone who is closer to one of the poles travels slower through space as the earth rotates. They are moving through less space in the course of a single day (rotation). Both observers are unified in time, but are travelling through space at a different velocity (rate).  As this difference of velocities between observers is characterised by the curvature of the earth towards its north or south axis, we suggest that π unifies space and time across the surface of the Earth

If an observer leaves the surface of the planet, they will undergo a slight time dilation compared to those who remain upon the earths surface. Similarly, the radius of the circle begins to increase. This concept requires a little thought, and has several implications for the current theory of relativity, and notions of time dilation.

Previous slide
Next slide

Solving the Photon

Whilst the problem of the Aether can be resolved through the scientific observations of the present day, in order to resolve the particle nature of light we still need to solve the problems of the Ultraviolet Catastrophe and Photoelectric effect, which first lead to the idea that reality is quantised. In fact, we have already explained the detail solutions to both of these problems, so we will only explain an overview of the conclusion here.


the ultraviolet Catastrophe

When an object is heated up, it will change colour. Scientists wanted to relate the colour produced to the specific wavelengths of light. Through experimentation, extensive data had graphed the relationship of the intensity of light at specific frequencies for objects at different temperatures. All that was needed was the mathematical formula that could produce a similar result.

This was left to Rayleigh and Jeans to explore a solution. As the experiments had been conducted in a box, they used the idea of waves that would exhibit a specific frequency at the length of the parallel sides. They then calculated the frequency of different temperatures by dividing the wavelength into smaller waves through an integer series of number. This creates the harmonic series.

The calculations of Rayligh and Jeans using harmonic series

Notice that the harmonic series creates an exponential curvature to infinity, which emulates the results from the calculations of Rayleigh and Jeans. Therefore, their failure to unify the laws of classical electromagnetism with the blackbody spectrum, does not immediately suggest light is a particle. Instead, it is evidence that the light wave is structured using a different principle to the harmonic series.

Wave Solution to the Ultraviolet Catastrophe

It is a well known fact that the harmonic series falls out of tune towards discordance as the waves of each division produces a particular note. In musical terms, this is why we have the 7 modes, and 7 types of scale, and why sharps and flats, the black notes on the piano keyboard, are different notes, that are so close to each other, they often sound like the same note. Before the tempered scale, musical tunings were set for a specific key. The Pythagorean system of music is derived from the octave, circle of 4ths and 5ths. These are formed from the division of a line (string) into two, three and four parts.

When we apply the idea of this musical structure to the structure of light, then we find it can produce the same curvature as those described by experimental observation. Furthermore, evidence in the field of optics has suggested a new model of the visible light spectrum based on two types of interfering wave. We have found that light can produce resonant frequencies, which are scaled by a factor of √2 and √3. These ratios are all found within a cube with side length 1. The √2 is the diagonal of its face, and √3 the furthest point between two corners.

Rather than performing calculations based on the dimensions of a box, this solution is found by taking the peak of special radiance. The perspective is much more akin to the nature of open free space, as the universe does not have solid walls that contain the expanding light wave. This perspective produces a peak of limited radiation, unlike the Rayleigh Jean model which used an infinite sequence of whole number, from 1 to infinity, whose curvature continuously extends in the same direction.


Through the recognition of the structure of the visible light wave that follows the principles of musical ratio, we are able to match the spectral resonance peak, instead of the infinite curvature produced from Rayleigh and Jeans calculations, which are founded on the harmonic series.

Find out more

Discover the wave solution to the Ultraviolet Catastrophe through the nature of musical ratio

the Photoelectric effect

The only remaining problem for the wave model of light is the photoelectric effect. This interesting scientific phenomenon occurs when different wavelengths of light shine upon a surface to induce a current in a circuit. The effect is dependent on the light’s frequency, not its energy. Einstein’s solution to this was initially suggested as light being quantised into discrete packets of energy. This became photons, which brought back the particle nature of light. Whilst this might offer a plausible solution, the quantised wave nature of light based on resonance can also produce a satisfactory answer.


The wave solution to the photoelectric effect

As each atomic structure comprises a different type of geometry for each of the 4 types of orbital (S, P, D, and F), the nature by which each reacts to a light wave will differ. This is dependent on factors such as the number of protons, which shells are charged with electron energy, the radius of the atom, its temperature and the geometric configuration of the atoms in the material. The photon solution does not examine these qualities in any great detail, as it is believed that light carries the energy.

However, as the effect seems to be frequency, and not energy related, we can see that this directly relates to the size of the vibrational wave. As frequency changes, so does the light wave proportionally, so that when multiplied the result is always c, the constant for the speed of light. The result is that a higher frequency results in a smaller wave.

We can find evidence that the photoelectric effect arises from the interaction between the resonant nature of light, and the surface boundary of the material. Furthermore, there is a direct correlation between this effect and the frequencies of the cosmic microwave background.

From this view, It is not the light wave that carries the energy. Light only acts as the trigger that resonates the evanescent waves at the surface level of the material, which causes the energy to be drawn from the vacuum, (Aether). This solution offers fresh insight into the nature of solar panels, batteries, electric circuits, and even the natural processes like photosynthesis. The 4D Aether unifies the energy in the vacuum of space, the geometry of the atom, and the frequency of the electromagnetic wave into a coherent hypothesis, that removes the needed for the wave particle duality notion of light.

Find out more

Discover the 4D Aether solution to the Photoelectric Effect and the wave lony nature of light

These solutions are relatively simple, and should they prove true, will have deep implications on our fundamental ideas about the universe. It seems unfortunate that the current scientific community has tended to abandon the geometric and musical nature of reality. Unlike those who pioneered new ideas throughout the history of humanity, who basis for understanding the universe was through geometric thinking.

The Aether permeates the entire fabric of the whole universe, even in the spaces between the atom and the nucleus. However, as science is compartmentalised the examination of the cosmos, and the discoveries and theories of the quantum world are rarely considered as a whole. History shows us that the Newtonian view of the particle of light is more readily accepted, even when there is overwhelming evidence to support the wavelike nature of light. Even Thomas Young’s simple experiment was not favoured until Fresnel and Maxwell produced additional evidence and the electrical revolution had made such an impact on civilisation, that it could no longer be denied.

The 4D Aether offers a new mathematical landscape for exploring scientific concepts. Instead of the vector based measurements of particle science, the 4D Aether wave model is able to maintain the spherical wavelike nature of light, and explain all the strange quirks of wave-particle duality logically, using the mathematics of 4D geometry.

Play Video

Da Vinci School Online course

Atomic geometry

Build a geometric model of the atom

The most fun, creative and tactile exploration of the atom, based on Schrödinger Equations, giving you a solid foundation for physics and chemistry.

A Unified electromagnetic theory

Maxwell’s laws of electromagnetism, once adjusted to account for the system of resonance with the background Aether, can be reinstated with the 4D Aether Theory. We no longer need the EM field to be quantised with particles of light. Moreover, we can pay greater attention to the discoveries of the Cosmic Microwave Background, which seem to express a geometric relationship to the size of the proton, and electron cloud.

The 4D Aether interpretation of the photoelectric effect explains the relativistic perspective of electricity in simple terms. When a circuit is connected, the energy does not run down the wire as is commonly taught. Moreover, the energy from the battery is emitted into the Aether, and absorbed through the entire circuit. For this reason, a transformer, formed of two independent unconnected coils of wire in proximity, can transform voltage and current relationships through the magnetic field. Once we realise that this is the true nature of the CMB, which acts as a 4D Aether connecting every point in the universe, this becomes far easier to explain.

Energy is emitted into the background Aether, through the magnetic field. The magnetic field is found throughout the length of a circuit. In terms of energy generation, the movement of a magnet through a wire creates the perceived electric flow. However, the energy is not flowing down the wire. The magnetic field is being disturbed, which is emanating into the Aetheric field, and being drawn into the circuit. Therefore, energy is emitted from a source into the Aether and reabsorbed into the entire circuit through the magnetic field.

What we begin to see is that the same mechanism that powers the photoelectric effect, is found in the foundations of electrical circuits. Energy from the vacuum of space is extracted based on the simple concept of resonance. This idea was already stated by Nikola Tesla, who had a great deal of insight into the nature of electricity. Today, we use resonance in the construction of amplifiers for music. A similar concept applied to lasers, whose fundamental operation is based on amplifying a particular frequency of light. The 4D Aether offers a new perspective on energy generation, and even the use of electricity in the sphere of non-binary computing.

Sacred Geometry shop

Online Shop

Grab your geometric goodies!

Discover a wealth of inspiration at our online shop! From visually stunning educational posters to captivating geometric mind games and original art, immerse yourself in a collection designed to unravel the mysteries of the Geometric Universe.

Beyond Wave Particle duality

In this article, we have examined the development of our understanding of light, From the times of the Ancient Greeks, the Islamic golden Age, and the Renaissance, geometry, and the notion of the Aether, have played a key role in our understanding of the universe. The wave solutions to the Ultraviolet Catastrophe and Photoelectric effect once again unifies these key concepts into a new wave of 4D thinking. This would seem to be a logical progression, as in the past we have moved from a 2D, to 3D perspective of light, so the next step is to embark on the 4th dimension of electromagnetism. 

The mathematics of 4D polytopes was only recently developed. Ludwig Schläfli, was one of the first to create a mathematical publication on the subject. Yet, it was only published after his death, in 1901. Even today, we are only just beginning to formulate a solid mathematical understanding of higher dimensional shapes. As we gain more understanding of the nature of higher dimensional geometry, then it could be that more of the mysteries in quantum physics may be explained.

Thus far, we have explored the wave-particle duality of light. However, exactly the same concept can be said of all matter. In the next part of our explantation of the wave only nature of reality, we explore the wavelike qualities of the electron, proton and neutron and give mass a surprising new definition.



Divider Menu

Is there an alternative to wave particle duality?

The 4D Aether theory solves both the problems with the Ultraviolet catastrophe and the Photoelectric effect. As these are the foundational reasons for the particle like nature of light, the solution which is able to solve these two problems without the need for a particle becomes a valid alternative. Additionally, this seems to answer a wide range of questions. From the quantised nature of the electron cloud and quantum spin, to the relativistic perspective of electricity, simple logical solutions arise, without having to resort to any kind of ‘quantum weirdness’.

Divider Menu

How might this impact the future?

The nature of light touches on a whole host of scientific beliefs, from the atomic structure, to the birth of the universe. Just as the advances in electromagnetism powered a whole new era of human civilisation, so the rediscovery of the Aether begins to piece together a more coherent picture of reality, that is able to unify the results of observable phenomena. This opens the way for new lines of investigation, particularly in terms of resonance and sustainable energy production.

Part 2: Matterwaves

Follow the next part of this article, where we examine the wave model of matter that avoids the particle duality of traditional quantum mechanics.

Carry On Learning

This article is part of our new theory on the 4D AETHER.  browse more interesting post from the list below
the photoelectric effect how does it work

Can the photoelectric effect be explained without the need for a photon?

The concept of the photon is based on our present solution to the photoelectric effect. However, this solution cannot be true, as the speed at which electrons are released into the circuit is much faster than the interactions between a photon and an electron. Our new 4D solution shows that it is the geometry of light and space that are actually responsible for this effect, ushering in a new theory of energy generation, extracted from the vacuum of space.

Read More »
Da Vinci school

Da Vinci School

Sign up for our Da Vinci School to access free online courses and explore the fascinating world of compass construction. Simplify complex knowledge through creative learning and make beautiful art!


Got a Question? Then leave a comment below.

Divider Menu
Sanne Breimer

I thought Nikolas Tesla’s Wardenclyffe tower experiment was proven not to work?


It was never proven or disproven, as the project was never completed. However, there is much that the notion of a 4D aether can tell us about how the energy of the vacuum can be tapped to produce a gain in overall output.

Hilary Faverman

I thought scientists already have the idea that time is the 4th dimension. How does the 4D Aether theory of time differ from that?


There are a few ways in which we may depict the notion of time. That which we call 4D time is the rate of the rotation of a 4D object in 3D space. 4D objects can be most simply considered a pair of two solids whose proportion are in some geometrical relationship. Two cube are composed to form a 4D hypercube. As the 4D object rotates, one form ‘swap places’ with the other. This ‘renders’ moments of time. This perspective of time includes the scale of the observer, relative to the quantum foam, into which all reality is embedded. Our time frames are limited by our 5 sense organs, whilst the mechanics of the atom proceeds at a time frame beyond our capacity to experience with the naked eye. This is a very different perspective from the traditional view that time is proceeding along a single line. Neither does it suggest a bending of the fabric of time space. A 4D object wraps around the 3D object and thus always encompasses it. This is how time can be unified over the surface of the earth. The 4D field creates a unified moment of time.

Leave a comment

1 + 2 =