A laser is an example of coherent light, that can project a beam extremely long distances. Powerful enough to cut through metal, it is said to exhibit negative temperature. But what exactly does that mean?
A laser is so powerful that is can burn through solid matter. When we consider the exact mechanism by which this occurs from the perspective of the 4D Aether Theory, the conclusion is that the energy is being extracted from the vacuum itself. This appears to be enabled by the resonance of the wavelengths of coherent light produced in the atoms of the optical resonator.
The conclusion is that negative temperatures are simply the result of the electron being held in a higher energy level. The laser beam of coherent light is able to cut through a material by breaking down the surface barrier of energy in the target material. This is the result of coherence or resonance, not temperature, which more accurately describes the nature of the phenomenon.
How does a laser work?
A laser works by energising atoms, or electrons with light, which resonate back and forth between two concave mirrors. As the light continuously passes repeatedly through the chosen medium, the frequency of light becomes more coherent. This creates the specific colour of the laser beam. The beam can be allowed to escape one end of the tube by reducing its reflective capacity so that a portion of the light escapes the container.
The Medium in the optical resonator can be a gas, liquid, solid, or even just a field of electrons. The appearance and properties of the laser are due to the fact that the light is coherent. This means all the wavelengths and frequencies are in the same proportion, and in phase with each other. The particle view suggests that this it due to the interaction of the source medium with the photon. When an atom is struck by light, it will tend to absorb certain frequencies. This is known as the spectra of the atom and is used by chemists and astrophysicists to determine the composition of materials.
Whilst the concept of the laser is often explained in terms of photon particles of light, the wavelike nature of light can also explain these results to a much more satisfactory degree. Certain materials produce certain frequencies of light. This is due to the spacings of the electron cloud, as only a specific wavelength of light can move an electron into a higher energy level. When a light wave interacts with the atom, it absorbs a specific frequency of the EM Wave. The electron jumps into a higher shell, without appearing in the space between. When the electron fall back down into a lower shell, so a new wave of light is released.
As the process of producing more EM waves is repeated as light passes through the optical amplifier, so more frequencies become tuned to the vibrational state of the medium. Therefore, the laser is formed through a unification of the resonance of the light wave.
It is quite a remarkable fact that lasers are so powerful, they can cut through sheet metal. Even a relative low laser of 5W can do long-lasting damage to the eye. When we take a magnifying glass and a torch, we can never produce a beam strong enough to burn through a material. We can only produce a focused beam that is the same temperature as the surface of the touch. So how can a laser produce so much energy?
The proposed solution is that lasers express ‘negative temperature‘. This might sound quite confusing to begin with. However, the concept of temperature does not mean that the light get physically hotter or colder than the surrounding area. It means that the system exhibits a boundary. A maximum limit. An unbounded system does not have any limitation. An object can get heated to and infinite degree, in theory. We only need to keep adding more energy and the system increases in temperature. However, a for a bounded system, the temperature can only increase to a specific amount. No matter how much energy is put into the system, once the limit is reached, then the temperature starts to pass through infinity to reach negative temperature.
The idea of negative temperatures is more easily explained by a set of particles constrained by a box. With little or no temperature, the particles sit relatively motionless at the bottom. As more energy is added into the container, the particles get excited. Now some of them will start hitting the top of the box. When even more energy is added to the system, more particles are found the in the top half of the box, which starts to produce negative heat. This will increase until all the particles have so much energy, they are effectively pushed up against the top of the box, at which point their vibration starts to decrease.
When we consider the nature of the atom, the electron is quantised into discrete shells. As the light in the laser is amplified through the optical resonator, so more of the electrons in each atom begin to exist more often at a higher energy level than in a lower one. The electrons now exhibit the conditions for producing negative heat.
Here we can see that on the left more of the atoms have electrons in a lower shell, whereas on the right more of the atoms have their electrons in a higher shell. Therefore, the simple description of negative heat occurs in a laser when the proportion of atoms with electrons in a higher shell is greater than those with electrons in a lower shell.
Matter wave perspective
It is a well established scientific fact that electrons exhibit a wavelike quality. Just like light, electrons can be refracted when passed through a narrow gap. Based on this discovery, Erwin Schrödinger developed a set of equations, which describe the evolution of a spherical wave. This led to the proposal of an electron cloud, whereby the exact location of the electron can never be truly established. It is a curious fact that no one knows for sure the exact radius of an electron. Sizes vary from the classical interpretation of 2.817×10-15 m to zero, where the electron is defined as a point of charge.
The Schrödinger Equations predict the evolution of a spherical wave in 3D space. These orbital patterns have been verified by charging a simple hydrogen atom. As the electron cloud becomes energised, the different patterns are formed by the electron cloud, which can be imaged. The sphere is only the first orbital type to appear. This is called an S-orbital. The Second type is the P-orbital, which appears as two opposite spheres, separated by the nucleus. Each of these different orbital shapes come in four kinds, S, P, D and F. The pattern of this evolution follows a specific geometric pattern.
In our new theory of Atomic Geometry, we examine the nature of these orbital shells from the perspective of the Platonic and Archimedean solids, which nest perfectly inside once another. The result is a geometric model of the atom that is more accurate than the Bohr model, and simpler to grasp, as it can be constructed in 3D using simple card.
S P D and F orbitals
Atomic Geometry 2D Geoemtry
Atomic Geometry 3D modelling of the Orbitals
The geometric perspective of the electron cloud provides a slightly different interpretation to the standard model. Traditionally, the electron is assumed to be a particle, which has a probabilistic distribution over the entire area of orbital. There are a few problems with this model. The paradox of wave-particle duality, introduces probabilistic mathematics into science. This introduces a non-deterministic approach to science, which leads to the need for various different models to describe the different aspects of the universe.
Atomic Geometry suggests that it is the nature of space surrounding the proton that is responsible for the quantisation of the electron cloud. Furthermore, it does not perceive the electron as a particle orbiting the nucleus. Nor does it subscribe to the wave-particle paradox. Instead, it perceives the proton and electron cloud from the perspective of a 4D geometric interaction.
This explains the nature of atomic spin in terms of the rotation of a 4D object. The example is the hypercube, which is often depicted as two cubes, one inside the other. As the form is rotated, the inner cube swaps places with the outer. We call this 4D rotation, which is akin to the notion of quantum spin in the standard model.
The image above shows the rotation of the Hypercube. The electron, has a ½ quantum spin value. Therefore, for every 360°, the hypercube will swap places. It takes 2 rotations of 720°, in order to complete a full rotation of the 4D electron cloud. This notion maintains the wavelike view of the electron as an energy cloud, whose quantised states are now defined by the 4th dimensional nature of space.
One of the key differences between a wave and a particle is resonance. When waves of the same frequency are added together, they create a constructive interface. Each wave peak reinforces each other. If the waves are off-set by a half wavelength, then the trough of each wave will appear at the peak of the other, which creates destructive interference. The wave diminishes to a flat line.
This phenomenon only applies to waves, not particles. When we consider the wavelike quality of the electron and EM waves, the reasons for the large power output of the laser takes on a slightly different notion. We find that the waves are coming into resonance at a particular frequency, based on the medium.
The same principle of a laser that amplifies light is found in an audio circuit that amplifies sound. If a microphone is placed in front of the speaker, the sound begins to resonant at a particular frequency, This is called feedback, which normally occurs at a specific frequency. The analogy to a laser is quite simple. Instead of sound being amplified through the loop between the microphone and speaker, the light is being amplified in the optical resonator.
The feedback in an audio system can be resolved by the introduction of a feedback eliminator. By finding the frequency that is prone to produce the tone of the feedback, another tone that is offset in phase will cancel out the signal, By creating destructive interference. As noted in the image above, the result is a flat line. The wave peaks have been completely reduced to zero.
When considered as a 4D field, the electron cloud becomes quantised into ½ spin cycles. Light waves that strike the electron will begin to unify are a specific frequency. This triggers the rotation of the 4D electron cloud, unifying it with the wavelengths of the light. Some of these waves will unify, creating constructive interference, which increase the amplitude of the wave. However, other waves will be off-set by ½, which creates destructive interference. A flat line.
When we consider the fact that a laser differs in its qualities to normal light, in that it produces a narrow beam capable of travelling vast distances, then we can draw a comparison to the nature of destructive interference. EM waves are unified by the speed of light (c). When the frequency is multiplied by the wavelength, the result is always c. This means the wave will maintain its spherical nature, termed a sine wave. When light falls into coherence, we should expect the amplitude of the wave to increase. However, this is not the case. The EM waves remain in exactly the same sinusoidal shape. This nature of light can only be accounted for by the introduction of destructive interference, which reduces the amplitude of the wave, maintaining is sinusoidal nature. In terms of a laser, the light is amplified through resonance, which is counterbalanced by the destructive interference of the off-set of the EM wave. A portion of the light creates constructive interference, whilst another portion creates destructive interference, which increases the energy of the laser, and focuses the beam.
In the image above, we can see the two electron states which produce an off-set of the EM wave, which manifests as destructive interference. The flat line of the laser beam mixes with the amplitude of the EM wave, to maintain its spherical nature. The reason why the EM waves must conform to the geometry of the sphere, is due to the speed of light, as the frequency multiplied by the wavelength must always equal c. Any imbalance to this sinusoidal nature is therefore off-set by the destructive interference of the quantised states of the electron. This is maintained by the ratio of 2:1. For every pair of atoms that exhibit the same orientation, another atom will exhibit a counter rotation. This establishes the boundary of the system, governed by the sinusoidal nature of the electromagnetic wave.
When we consider this ratio as a whole, we find that is can be described as a 1/3 to 2/3 relationship. Whilst the electron cloud has a 4D rotational dynamic of 1/2 spin, the proton, and neutron are governed by quarks which have quantum spin values of 1/3 and 2/3. When perceived in terms of quantum spin of a 4D object, instead of charge values, we can see that the electron cloud becomes quantised to the same ratio. Therefore, we can identify the quantum spins of the electron cloud in the atoms found in a resonant chamber of a laser will be in harmony with the spin rotation of the protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus.
This notion of the relationship between the atomic spin values of the electron cloud and atomic nucleus expressed the idea that the two aspects of the atom are not separate phenomena. Instead, the 4D view sees the election cloud as a part of the multidimensional nature of the proton. For this reason, we find that there are exactly the same number of electron and protons in the universe.
energy from the Vacuum
From the perspective of the 4D spin value of the atom, a laser light comprises a specific ratio of electromagnetic waves, that matches the nature of the atomic spin of the electron and proton. The light that is produces now exhibits a very narrow beam, which, when focussed, can have enough power to cut through a metallic surface. It cannot be said that this is due to the temperature of the laser. Moreover, it is now related to the composition of the light. When the light strikes the surface of the material, both exhibit the same ratio. This causes a reaction at the surface boundary of the material, causing it to break down. This explains how a laser can raise the temperature of water to 100,000 °C in just 75 millionths of a billionth of a second. The beam of the laser does not exhibit a temperature, instead it is supposed that the photon particles carry the energy. However, this view is challenged by the 4D model, which sees the nature of resonance as the reason for the power of the laser.
In our theory of the 4D Aether, we have shown strong evidence that the photoelectric effect does not require a photon of light for an adequate solution. The new theory suggests that the Cosmic Microwave Background, and the Quantum Foam which surround each atom, are key in the production of energy in the photovoltaic circuit.
The idea of negative temperature is mathematically correct, the fact that light does not have any mass means this mechanism relies on the fact that a photon as a particle will exhibit a specific amount of energy. A single unit of Energy (E) is related to the unit of energy of a single electron or proton, denoted by the elementary charge constant (e), by the energy of a photon (Ep) In Dimensionless Science, this relationship is expressed by 2/π.
e × Ep = E = ½π × 2/π = 1
When the notion of charge is associated with the quantum spin value of the electron cloud, this expression demonstrates the ½ spin of a torus field. A single rotation must be multiplied by 2 in order to complete a 360° rotation in 3D space. When we multiply the elementary charge by 2, the result is π, i.e, one rotation. This provides an interesting insight into the nature of charge, which now arises from the interaction of different quantum spin values. In the proton, the spin of 1/3 in unified to the electron spin, which is why both exhibit exactly the same amount of charge, despite the proton being much smaller and much more dense than the electron cloud. The notion of the electron as a particle has extreme difficulty in explaining the relationship of the proton and electron masses, compares to their size. The classical radius of the electron is supposed to be 2.5 times bigger than that of the proton. The only recourse is the introduction of a probabilistic notion of the quantum field.
The 4D Aether view resolves these problems, and identifies the mechanism by which light waves can be transmitted through the vacuum of space. Quite simply, the vacuum is full of energy. It is the electromagnetic resistance of the vacuum that limits the speed of light. This maintains the spherical nature of the EM waves, which expand evenly in all directions. When the laser develops coherent light, is it projected as a narrow beam through the 4D Aether. The energy is drawn from the vacuum as the surface of the material, which causes the nearly instantaneous reaction in the material. This explains how the energy transfer can occur within such a short time frame, a fact that cannot be explained by the standard model.
Whilst the concept of negative temperature and does preserve the 2nd Law of thermodynamics, and the conservation of energy, it does not really express the mechanism but which this is achieved. The concept of 4D resonance outlined in this article does provide a much more satisfactory answer. This is supported by the wave solutions for the blackbody experiment, and photoelectric effect.
If this hypothesis should be proven true, then this calls for a radical reassessment into the characteristics of lasers, which examines the ratio of the wavelengths of light to the geometric structure of the electron cloud. At a time when we are looking for an alternative means of energy production, the concept of 4D resonance could provide a possible solution. By structuring light, it might well be possible to extract energy from different materials. A laser that can heat water should be able to power a generator. Whilst the 4D Aether Theory is still in its infancy, we find that in many applications, it provides a solution much more akin to experimental observations, whilst overcoming many of the problems of traditional quantum field theory.
How does a laser work?
According to 4D Aether theory, a laser amplifies light by creating EM waves that are unified at particular frequencies based on the geometry of the electron cloud. It consists of waves of both constructive and destructive interference, which maintains the spherical nature of the light wave. This provides the laser beam with is particular narrow dispersion, and allows it to cut through a surface material. This is achieved through the resonance with the 4D Aether at the surface boundary of the material.
What does this solve?
This explains how the energy of the can be transfers so quickly to the target material. It suggests the energy is being drawn from the vacuum, which offers a new insight into energy production. This view is further supported by the wave solution to the Ultraviolet catastrophe and the Photoelectric effect.
Carry On Learning
This article is part of our new theory on the 4D AETHER. browse more interesting post from the list below
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation discovered in 1964 is ascribed to the remnants of the Big Bang. Yet, correlations to the atom suggest it is it more likely the energy in the vacuum, the Aether field, which undermines the notion of a photon of light.
When the classical interpretation of electromagnetism failed observational measurements of black body radiation, the Planck constant offer a solution to the Ultraviolet Catastrophe that suggested light was quantised into packets. However, an alternative solution can also be found in the nature of harmonic resonance.
YOUR QUESTIONS ANSWERED
Got a Question? Then leave a comment below.
I thought charge was about negative and positive particles, how do you account for that with a wave only model?
The root cause of charge has never been established in physics. It is just accepted as experimental results confirm its existence. The 4D Aether theory is the first to propose the origin of charge, related to the difference in quantum spin number between the electron cloud and the proton. Electrons exhibit a negative charge, however, they also come in pairs, which is difficult for the standard model of electrical charge to justify. When viewed from the perspective of 4D spin, we find that the spin values of the proton and electron directly relate to the values of the resistance of the vacuum. We cover this idea in more detail in our article on the 4D wave model of matter.
In the image of the Aether you show in the last picture, it seems to be formed of different coloured triangles. It this the ‘shape’ of the Aether?
The image is of a set of octahedra, that are compiles with tetrahedra to fill space. This we call the Octahedral Light. This is one of the structure of the 4D aether that is responsible for the transmission of light. We also find the octahedral structure produces a complete set of P-orbitals. However, there are other 4D forms in the electron cloud, such as the Cube and cuboctahedron. A more detailed description of the 4D Aether can be found in our solution to the Photoelectric effect.