The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation was discovered in 1964. Since then, it has been studied with more precision and in greater detail. In this article, we examine these findings from the perspective of Geometry and the 4D Aether.
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) permeates the whole of the known universe, which includes every square cementer of space on earth. Years before its discovery, scientist were engaged with an intense search for a luminous Aether, that would act as a mechanism that could transmit an electromagnetic wave through the vacuum of space. When they failed to identify it, the theory of the photon particle of light was introduced, which offered an alternative solution to the problem. However, as a photon was still required to exhibit wavelike properties, the concept of wave particle duality was introduced, which became a central theme of quantum mechanics. The mechanism whereby a wave could be collapsed into a particle was subsequently ascribed to a function of human consciousness. The observer effect.
Yet, the issue of the wavelike properties of light has never been properly resolved. Moreover, it is accepted that photons act like wave packets, which still required a medium in order to propagate. So when the cosmic background radiation was eventually discovered, you might think it would cause quantum physics to re-evaluate its stance. Instead, it was reduced to a remanent of the big bang, without ever considering it as a medium that would transport a light wave through the vacuum of space, removing the need for the particle properties of the photon. In this article we explore the qualities of this energy, and propose a 4D Aether, which removes the wave particle duality from quantum thinking and replaces it with simple logic, which resolves numerous problems associated with traditional scientific model.
What is The cosmic Microwave Background?
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an energy field that permeates the whole of the universe. Contrary to the description that it is found ‘in the sky’ as some have described it, it even appears in the space that surround you. That’s right, throughout the universe, includes every square meter on earth. It is not just in some distance place.
So what does this mean? The whole of reality is ‘floating’ on the background of a tremendous amount of energy. This was termed the Zero Point Energy field by Max Planck in 1911. Even the vacuum of space contains this energy. In fact, when we examine the reasons for the limitation of the speed of light, we find the solution is found in the electromagnetic resistance of space. But where does this resistance come from?
A simple solution would be the Cosmic Microwave Background. Although it only exhibits a fraction of the required energy compared to the calculated Zero Point field, it does permeate the whole of the universe. Additionally, we find is exhibits several properties that, as we shall see, matches observed phenomena at the atomic scales of reality. With its discovery in 1964, you would think that the idea that the CMB might be linked to the concept of an Aether would be a relatively small leap in deduction. However, the theory of the photon had apparently solved many of the major scientific problems that emerged from the classical interpretation of electromagnetic waves. To backtrack on over 60 years of quantum theory would deal a serious blow so to our current interpretation of the universe. Therefore, it appears this idea was never seriously entertained. Yet, once we begin to adopt a 4th dimensional view of the CMB, it begins to resolve quite a few problems that the classical interpretation has struggled to solve.
What is The Aether?
In 1801 Thomas Young conducted an experiment the proved light was a wave. By directing light through a small slit he produced an defuse interference pattern indicative of a wave. Subsequently, Faraday discovered electricity, and developed the first electrical generator. This was followed by Maxwell who produce much of the mathematics that could describe Faraday’s experiments, and who subsequently discovered the electromagnetic spectrum. These discoveries paved the way for the radical transformation of the world, offering for the first time an alternative method for powering the civilisation we know today. Yet one problem persisted. If light were a wave, then what was the medium that would carry it through the vacuum of space? When attempts such as the Michelson Morley experiment failed to detect the Aether, and the failing of classical wave theory predictions leading to the Ultraviolet Catastrophe, the solution of the photon was proposed in 1901 by Albert Einstein.
This idea was supported when Max Planck realised that light could be best described by quantised packets. Through mathematical examination of the data, he produced a constant (h) that limited the energy of the wave packets, and matched the observed phenomena of the photoelectric effect. However, in 1911 he also suggested that in order for this theory to work the background of space should contain a tremendous amount of energy, that he termed the zero point energy in the vacuum.
It was around this time that scientist first started to discover the structure of the atom. A tiny nucleus surrounded by a field of electrons. As the theory of quantum physics was developed, two opposing views emerged. The Copenhagen interpretation of particle physics, and quantum wave theory.
Today, the particle definition is the primary model of the atom taught in schools. Yet, for those who study advance physics, it is clear that the atom does not behave in this way. Instead, we find that the electron cloud is a field of energy, termed by particle physicists as a cloud of probability. This was a big step for science, as prior to this science required exact measurement and definition. The idea of wave particle duality is still prevalent today, but it is worth pointing out that all of these theories dismissed Planck’s original assertion that there should be a vast amount of energy in the vacuum of space. Indeed, it is this energy which prevents the speed of light being infinite. Just as Max Planck suggested, the empty vacuum is not empty, it is filled with energy. Physicist Robert B. Laughlin explains the reason for the reluctance of science to accept such an idea:
Therefore, the reason the Aether is not accepted has nothing to do with science, but the taboos associated with it. In fact, modern theory has identified its existence, and cannot possibly work without it.
The flatness of space
What shape is the Universe? The idea that the universe is a particular shape might seem like a strange idea. But it is a crucial concept if we are to understand what space actually is. The fact that we live is a 3D world was shown by the examination of gas that is released from a compressed state. The gas expands to form a uniform medium. This means that space can be modelled using simple 3d shapes, such as the sphere, or cube. But what about at larger scales, such as the universe itself?
In order to answer that question, scientists can examine the nature of the CMB. It turns out that it is almost uniform in all directions, with only very slight variations in temperature. Therefore, through the measurement of the CMB that we know Euclidean Geometry holds true, even when measuring vast distance of space. When it was first discovered, the CMB seemed to have a uniform background temperature of 2.7 degrees kelvin. It wasn’t until the first space mission, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), launched by NASA in 1989 to specifically study the CBM, that tiny variations in temperature were detected. This was further improved upon by the WMAP space mission in 2003.
This uniformity of the CMB caused problems in the steady state universe theory, which failed to explain how this uniformity could have arisen throughout the vast distances of space. Light travelling from one side of the universe had no way of interacting with light at the far reaches of the other side of the universe, just as, milk poured into tea takes time to combine into a uniform mixture. This lead credence to the expanding universe theory, which suggested these distances would be small enough if the universe emerged from a single dot, which would allow for the conformity. However, in order to make the theory work, the initial expansion needed to accelerate faster than the speed of light. Once the CMB reached an isotropic state, the universe expansion slowed down dramatically, to form the galaxies we see today. However, this change in acceleration also requires a new kind of dark energy, that would turn on or off to increase or decrease the expansion rate. Yet, despite being often quoted as a fact, no direct evidence for dark energy has ever been found, even though it should account for around 72% of all energy in the universe.
However, a simpler solution can be found when we consider the CMB as a 4D Aether. As the Aether permeates the whole of the universe, we should expect it to have an isotropic nature. Composed of a uniform 4D structure, is would also be incompressible in a 3D space, which is one of the key requirements. This in turn overcomes the objection that a static universe should collapse in on itself. But what is a 4D Aether. To obtain a clearer picture, we need to turn to the laws of geometry for the solution.
Gravity and the Aether
Is the universe flat or curved. According to the relativistic theory of gravity, space-time becomes curved by mass, which creates a gravitational field. From this view, gravity is a consequence of us continuously ‘falling’ through space-time. However, the CMB proves that the universe is completely flat. If you shine two parallel lines out into space, they will remain parallel regardless of the distance travelled. So how can the universe (space) be flat, but spacetime be curved.
The proposed solution is that whilst 3D space is flat, but 4D spacetime is curved by the density of matter that bends the fabric of space. However, from the perspective of geometry, this idea does not express the nature of the different types of 4D polytopes. In fact, there are a number of 4D objects, such as the hypercube and torus. The hypercube is formed of straight lines, whereas the torus is formed of curved lines.
As scientists are not particularly geometrically minded, (or so it seems), this concept eludes the traditional description of space and time. Normally this warping of spacetime is shown as a flat plain upon which an object with mass, such as the Earth, weighs down upon its surface. However, in the 4D model of the universe, spacetime is curved around the Earth, the exact opposite to current theory.
This view sees the field lines of the Background Aether wrapping around the surface of the Earth or similar body, which is the correct view as described by the magnetic field. Although this may seem like a subtle difference, it is an important one, particularly when it comes to explaining the nature of gravity. Rather than ‘falling’ through spacetime, it is the field of the background Aether that is the force that creates gravity. This is why the earth has an electromagnetic field that is curved in the same direction as the surface of the earth. This is also confirmed by the effect of gravitational lensing, that bends light around an object of mass.
This view inverses the present perception of gravity. Traditionally it is believed that mass creates gravity, however, the inverse of this is that gravity creates mass. The energy formed of a solid body of atoms is confined by the gravitational field, which acts to maintain its density. This is even supported to a degree by the ideas proposed by the expanding universe theory. The standard model of the Big Bang suggest that matter was pulled together to form galaxies through a combination of Gravity and Dark matter. If mass creates gravity, then it requires that the mass would need already be present in order for gravity to act upon it in the first place. However, if Gravity creates the mass in the universe, then we have a model whereby protons and electrons can begin to form. By ‘condensing’ energy, which in turn forms the atomic nature of the universe.
Objects such as galaxies, stars and planets all exhibit mass that distorts the field of the CMB, producing the gravitational effect. Without the CMB (Aether), gravity would not exist.
Similar theories of gravity concerning the Aether have been proposed throughout history. Yet none have taken a 4D geometric approach. Lord Kelvin and Carl Anton Bjerknes (1871) suggested that a body emersed in the Aether might pulsate in phase at the same time. If two spheres in a fluid are pulsated in phase, they will attract each other; whereas if they are out of phase, they will repel each other. This mechanism could also be used to explain the nature of electric charges. However, criticisms arose as all of these pulsations would need to be synchronised across the whole universe in order to ensure that attraction arises at greater distances. Additionally, it requires that the Aether is an incompressible substance. Finally, Maxwell argued that this process requires the ongoing production and destruction of the Aether.
Yet the 4D Aether exactly expresses all of these qualities. In the example of the hypercube, (see above) the constant rotation provides the equivalent of a ‘pulsation’ effect, but in quantised steps. Therefore, the 4D model of the Aether can also accommodate the quantised nature of reality, and thus satisfies the problem of the ultraviolet catastrophe.
The Qualities of the CMB
The Cosmic Microwave Background has properties that have been observed and measured. Besides having an almost uniform temperature, it exhibits a frequency and a wavelength that are, like all electromatic waves, unified by the speed of light. If the wavelength increases, the frequency decreases, so that when the two are multiplied together the result will be the speed of light constant (c).
The spectral radiance of the CMB can be measured by either the frequency or wavelength over a square meter of space. This gives two distinct results where the energy is most prevalent.
Frequency, wavelength, energy, and temperature of the CMB
Notice that when measured by frequency the temperature is 2.73 Kelvin, whereas when measured by wavelength, the temperature is 0.0180 K, which is a tiny variation of the temperature. Also, the Energy when measured by frequency produces roughly the same value as the wavelength in the top row, 187.4. For those who are geometrically minded, we can immediately recognised that these numbers produce ratios that can be expressed by simple geometric laws.
The Geometry of the CMB
The measurement of the CMB are extracted from a square meter of space. When we examine the frequency measurement, we find that the value 282.82 is almost exactly √8, 2.8284, which is the diagonal of a square with a side length of 2. Additionally, the temperature of 2.73K is exceedingly close to the value of √3+1, or 2.732. This means we can place the two values on a right angle triangle, with the third side measuring √3+1.
The Geometric relationship of Frequency (Red) to temperature (Green) of the CMB.
Furthermore, when 2 (space) is divided by √3-1 it produces √3+1, the temperature of the CMB. In Dimensionless Science, we use 3 to express the Speed of Light (c). We also introduce a new constant for the speed of sound in an infinitely dense noble gas, as √3.
The 4D Aether exhibits the properties of an incompressible fluid, which produces resistance in the vacuum of space. This limits the maximum speed at which an electromagnetic wave (light) can penetrate such a substance. In fact, it is electromagnetic resistance that limits the speed of light. In 4D Aether theory, this is expressed as a 4D rotation, as shown in the image of the hypercube above.
So where do we find the value √3±1? A cube with a side length of 1 will have a diagonal of √3. Therefore, a cube with a diagonal of 1 will have a side length of √3-1. If these two cubes are added together, the combined diagonal will equal √3+1. This produces a particular type of hypercube comprised of 3 Cubes. The inner and outer cube can ‘pivot’ (4D rotation), around the central cube, with a side length of 1.
From this example, we begin to describe the 4D Aether in terms of a hyper-cubic function. Movement, equates to energy, which is also indicative of temperature. Therefore, can say that the motion of the 4D Aether produces the energy that maintains the motion and minimum temperature of the entire universe, synchronised across time and space.
The CMB and the electron
The 4D hyper-cubic expression of the CMB also expresses a relationship between its temperature, the speed of light (dimensionless constant 3), and of the mass of an electron. By multiplying the side lengths of the inner and outer cubes shown above, we get the value of √3+1 / 3. i.e. temperature divided by the speed of light. The result is a value that is very close to the electron mass.
me ÷ ((√3 +1)/3) = 1.00027…
Using the traditional scientific constants, we find that (T/c) ÷ me = 9.9811 x1021, where T is the temperature of the CMB, c the speed of light and me the mass of the electron. This value is reduced in scale to 0.99811 x1014 when we take into consideration that the CMB measurements are complied using a square meter, as the speed of light value is normally considered in at much larger scales. As the suggested ‘diameter’ of an electron is about 10–14 meters, this value resolves to the correct scale, i.e 0.99811, a difference of less than 0.002.
It is worth noting that the diameter of the electron has never actually been proven to exist. Traditional atomic theory has no explanation as to why the electron should exhibit its particular mass or size values, which are calculated in terms of is minimum distance from the proton. If the correlation between the electron and CMB were established, then it would represent a complete revolution of our current scientific thinking.
The CMB and electron Cloud
Whilst the simplified models of the atom, such as those taught in schools and used by Chemists, shows a nucleus surrounded by shells into which an electron can fall, this has been proven not to be the case. Such ideas are based upon the Bohr interpretation, which dates back to the early 1900s. By the 1920s, it had already become clear that electrons do not orbit the nucleus like planets orbit in the solar system. Instead, they form a cloud of energy, which itself has a geometric structure, a topic covered in great detail in our theory of Atomic Geometry.
Whilst is does provide a more simplistic system in many regards, that fact that many people view the electron as a particle has created a mainstream view of the atom that is simply not factually correct. Yet, when we consider the CMB that permeates every inch of space in the universe, we can begin to adjust our view towards a more accurate understanding.
If we imagine a vacuum, devoid of atoms, then light will expand from a light source at the speed of light. This speed is limited by the electromagnetic resistance of the vacuum, which is how the constant (c) is derived. The atomic nucleus is formed of protons and neutrons, which have a measured radius, unlike the electron which is only express as a ‘point charge’, i.e. the amount of energy the field expresses as a certain distance from the atoms’ nucleus.
If we imagine that a proton is emersed in the CMB, which creates a warping of its fabric, as its mass density makes it harder for the energy to travel through it, so it therefore takes the path of least resistance and bends around it, just as in our previous description of the gravitational field. The electron cloud is therefore just a description of this distortion. Any displacement of the CMB increases the field strength around that object.
Notice that in the 4D quantised image (right) the electron field is formed from a single circle (blue). This prevents the electron from collapsing into the atom, as predicted by the Bohr model of the atom.
Notice that the field lines of the CMB field in the image above become pushed closer together, indicating an increase in strength. However, even this is not the whole picture when we consider the 4D nature of the CMB, and proton interaction. From the perspective of the 4th dimension, the torus generates the quantised nature of the electron cloud. From this view, the electron and proton are a unified 4D phenomena.
In the universe at large, there are exactly the same number of protons are there are electrons. When an electron is removed from a proton, it will immediately seek to recombine in order to produce a stable atomic structure. It does not matter which electron, what matters is that the 4D field returns to a unity state. As the CMB is a universal field, any disturbance in one part will affect the whole. This is already suggested by the fact that all bodies in the universe are effecting each other, according to both electromagnetic field theory, and gravitation.
When we generate electricity, we are changing the balance of the field, not creating energy out of nothing. For example, a battery only produces an electric current for as long as there is an imbalance of charge of the plates that make each cell. Electricity does not run down the wire, rather the magnetic field sets up a quantum effect, which establishes the charge in the circuit.
When we begin to adapt our thinking to this more accurate description of the electromagnetic field and the nature of the atom, in light of a 4D Aether, it begins to resolve many of the problems associated with standard theory. The unification of the nature of electromagnetic waves and the frequency of the CMB, which pervades the whole universe, offers a new solution to the stable nature of the electron orbitals. For each atom is emersed in the CMB, which in turn maintains the atomic structure. If this is the case, it would be the largest revolution in atomic thinking since the first discovery of the atom, and would finally resolve the stable nature of the electron cloud.
The CMB and the Hydrogen atom
It is a curious fact that the existing model of the atom cannot produce the value for the experimentally measured radius of the hydrogen atom. The Bohr radius suggests a value of 53 pico meters, whereas the Van Dar Waal radius is 120 pico metres. Yet the experimentally measured value is only 25 pico meters with a tolerance of ±5 pm. This means the calculations are out by over 100% to almost 500%.
We can find the value for the surface area of a sphere with the equation r² x 4π. Therefore, the hydrogen atom with a radius of 0.25pm will have a surface area of 1/4π. When we divide the value for the electron mass of (√3+1)/3 by 1/4π, we obtain the distribution of energy over the surface of the sphere, 1.1595. This is extremely close to the value for electron volts for the CMB, of 1.166. In fact, if we substitute the electron mass for the official constant of 9.1093×10-31 and reduce the radius of the hydrogen atom by just 0.1pm to equal 24.9pm, then the result is 1.169, which is well within the experimental error of ± 5 pico meters.
9.1093×10-31 / 24.9 x 10-12)² x 4π = 1.169×10-10
CMB eV = 1.169×10-3
me = 9.1093×10-31 and Hydrogen Radius = 24.9 x 10-12
Notice that the CMB value is 107 times greater than the actual result. However, this is derived for a meter of space. To resolve the value to the pico meter, we should divide the CMB value by 1012.
1.169×10-3 / 1012 = 1.169×10-15
CMB eV per pico meter = 1.169×10-15
This means that 100,000 units of CMB radiation, equivalent to 1 unit of energy, distributed over the surface sphere of the hydrogen atom. But what is the real significance of this?
To make it easier to comprehend, we can imagine unwrapping the surface area of the hydrogen sphere, into a square, and dividing its side into 100 units. This will produce 10,000 small squares over its surface. Each of the smaller units can be filled with ten quantum of energy units from the CMB.
Remembering that the radius of the hydrogen atom is defined in pico meters (pm), a single unit of the CMB energy is 1 Femtometre (Fm), which is at the scale of a single proton. The 4D Aether, and the photon, are unified as the same scale of reality. This begins to reveal how the electron field of a single hydrogen atom is composed of point charges that are intrinsically related to the size of its proton.
Collapsing the wave function
The electron cloud is noted for exhibiting various peculiarities. Whilst its wavelike nature is generally accepted, the idea that the wave can collapse into a single particle is also a fundamental tenant of the standard model. It is generally believed that the act of measuring the electron collapses its wavelike nature into a particle. This is called collapsing the wave function, which is described by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Scientist can identify the location of the electron, or its momentum, but not both at the same time.
We can imagine that the act of measuring the electron collapses the energy into a single point on the surface of the s-orbital field. This means that every point on the surface of the sphere has the potential to express the entire energy of the electron as a single point. We can express this by taking the value for the surface area and multiplying it by the mass value for the electron.
(9.1093×10-31) x ((24.9 x 10-12)² x 4π) = 0.7097×10-51
(0.7097×10-51)² = 8.0594 x 10-120
This value almost exactly measures a quarter wavelength of the wavelength of the CMB, 282.82 GHz, or √8÷4.
0.7097×10-51 x 4 = 2.8389 x10-50
A more exact number is produced with a hydrogen radius of 24.853 pico meters, only -0.047 pico meters out from the actual measure radius of 25 pm.
But what is the significance of this seeming coincidence? When scientists study the hydrogen atom, it is often bombarded with highly energetic alpha or gamma radiation. This dislodges the electron, whereby it makes a detectable imprint of a metallic plate. In the process the hydrogen atom is annihilated, which is the fundamental reason why we can only know its position, and not its momentum, or vice verse. By measuring the trajectory of the electron, it is possible to establish its location. Or by mathematically working out is mass, we can deduce its ‘momentum’. However, the idea that the atom is immersed in the vacuum energy provides us with a slightly different view.
When a high-powered energy wave strikes the electron field, it disrupts the CMB, causing the proton to become detached from the electron field. The electron’s energy gets propelled through the Aether as a 4D wave, which can be detected.
For many people, the idea that an electron is a particle is so heavily ingrained that the fact it should act like a wave is initially quite hard to accept. However, the wave-particle duality of the electron has been well established. First postulated by Louis de Broglie in his 1924 Physics Thesis, his speculation that electrons should act as both waves and particles, just like a photon, was established shortly afterwards by Davisson-Germer Experiment. Additionally, the dimensions of the electron have never been established. In fact, we find a wide variation in the suggested radii which ranges from the classical radius of 2.82×10-15, to zero. Notice that the frequency of the CMB has the same value, 282.82 GHz. Thus, we see the evidence mounting for a mathematical co-relation between the electron field and the CMB.
Just like the photon, the particle nature of the electron can be attributed to the 4D Aether, that quantises space. However, in our calculations previously, we found that the surface of the hydrogen sphere multiplied by the mass of the electron is only a quarter of this value. What might be the reason for this?
To answer that, we need to consider the nature of electromagnetic waves. These are formed of two component waves are off-set by a quarter turn, or 90°. The electron wave also exhibits these properties. After a quarter turn, a maximum distance between the two waves is established. The consequence is the electron field is disturbed enough for the 4D Aether to ripple, creating the effect of a particle moving through space. Yet it is the nature of 4D rotation which propels and energy towards a specific location.
In conclusion, from the perspective of 4th dimension, it is the nature of space that is quantised as it is a 4D construct. An energy source can disturb the Aetheric field, leading to the accumulation of charges, which gives rise to the particle nature of the electron. Should this be the case, then it will radically alter our view of quantum theory, and even electromagnetism, in as much of a profound way as when Einstein first suggested the idea of a photon. However, this view does provide a logical reason for the wave-particle dualistic nature of light, atoms, and even larger molecules. The quantised nature of energy now becomes geometric in nature.
The CMB Elementary charge
The scientific constant for elementary charge is denoted by e, which is the fundamental unit of energy. The quantised nature of reality means that e only appears as whole number integers. The exception are quarks that are theorised to exhibit a 1/3 or 2/3 elementary charge, although they have never been isolated, and so only exist as constituent parts of the proton or neutron. Presently, elementary charge (e) has a value of 1.60217 ×10−19 coulombs (C).
Returning to our examination of the spectral radiance values obtained for the CMB, we find a similar correlation between the value for energy (187.4 J) when measured by frequency and wavelength (1.87 mm) when measured by wavelength. What is profoundly interesting is that when the speed of light (c) is divided by elementary charge (e), we arrive at almost exactly the same value.
c/e = 1.8711 x 1027
From the perspective of 4D, the speed of light does not represent a photon travelling through space. Moreover, it is attributed to the maximum expansion of a spherical wave as it overcomes the resistance of the energy in the vacuum, the background Aether. This resistance is expressed by two constants, the electro-resistive aspect (ε0) and the magnetic resistive aspect (υ0). What this shows us is that the limitation of c can also be associated to the energy or wavelength of the CMB, which in turn creates the energy quanta (e). This can be demonstrated mathematically simply by inverting the equation.
e x CMB wavelength (1.8711 x1015) = c ÷ 1012
As light frequency and wavelength of an electromagnetic wave will also equal c when multiplied, we find that (e) is equivalent to the wavelength of the CMB. The speed of light and CMB wavelength can be reduced from the GHz range (10-3) for a meter, to the Pico meter range at 10-12, to produce a scale at 10-15, whereby we find the both quantities unify to one.
The fundamental unit of energy (e) is found to be the wavelength or energy of the CMB, depending upon which method is used to extract the data. The unification of the CMB now shows a correlation between the fundamental quantised energy units of reality, as well as the mass, and supposed size of the electron, and hydrogen atom.
The CMB and the proton
The proton is found in the nucleus of the atom. Conventional theory suggest that it is a positively charged particle, with a value of +1e, whereas the electron is negativity charged with a value of -1e. For this reason, all neutral atoms will exhibit the same number of protons to electrons. The hydrogen atom is constituted with just one proton and one electron. When these come into equilibrium, then the electron will reside in the lowest energy shell. Only when it receives enough energy from a photon will the electron ‘jump’ into a higher shell, absorbing the photon in the process. The word ‘jump’ is used here, as it can never exist in an in between state. This is why the electron is quantised. The equilibrium of the electron and the proton are express in terms of the elementary charge constant.
proton = +1e and electron = -1e = 0
The positive charge of the proton and the negative charge of the electron reach an equilibrium, which defines the lowest energy shell of the atom.
As mentioned previously, the classical interpretation of the atom suggests the proton is made up of quarks, that are theoretically made of third charges. The ‘UP’ quark is made of +2/3e, whilst the ‘DOWN’ quark -1/3e. From this view, a single proton is made of two UP quarks and one DOWN, which gives is an overall charge of 1e. The Neutron on the other hand has one UP quark and two DOWN, which gives it a zero charge of 0e.
When we divide the Elementary Charge constant by 2/3 we get the result 1.06811 which is the value for the wavelength of the CMB when the wave is used to examine its spectral radiance. This means that the UP quark holds a charge that is equivalent to the wavelength of the CMB at 1.06 mm.
2/3e = 1.06811 x 10-19
CMB Wavelength = 1.06mm
However, the coincidence does not end there. The radius of the proton is between 0.84–0.87 Fm when calculated by the root-mean-square charge radius, although more recent studies place the value at 0.833 Fm. A radius of 0.848 can be divided into three, to produce the result 0.28266 Fm, which is a great match for the frequency for the CMB, 282.73 GHz.
Proton Radius = 0.848 / 3 = 0.28266 fm
CMB Frequency = 282.73 GHz
We can substitute the value of three with the speed of light and get a similar result. A more exact result is gained with a photon radius of 0.2827 fm. Again, we can invert the equation, so that the speed of light at the femtometre scale can be multiplied by the CMB frequency to produce the photon radius.
Proton radius (0.8476 x 10-15) ÷ (c ÷1019 )= 2.8273 x 10-5
(c ÷1019 ) x (282.73 ÷ 10-3) = 8.476 x10-10
c x CMB frequency = Proton Radius x 10-5
Note that the speed of light (c) is reduced to the fm scale by a factor of 10-19>
What we recognise is that the radius of the proton seems to correlate to the frequency of the CMB multiplied by the speed of light. Furthermore, the speed of light (c) can be divided by elementary charge (e), which constitutes the energy of a single proton, to produce the energy of the CMB. The fact that energy, radius, and even the nature of UP quark charges can all be traced back to the qualities measured from the CMB, begins to suggest it is much more than just a remanent of a Big Bang explosion. Instead, we start to realise that it may well lie at the very heart of quantum phenomena.
The CMB Anomalies
The CMB also exhibits a few peculiar traits that a 4D Aether is able to solve. The first of these is the low-ℓ multipole controversy anomaly. In particular, the quadrupole and octupole (ℓ = 3) modes appear to have an unexplained alignment with each other and with both the ecliptic plane and equinoxes.
What this mean is that there appears to be an alignment of the CMB to our own galaxy and even the relationship between the earth and the sun. A quadrupole is a magnetic field that is in a square alignment, and the octupole is in a cubic form. In atomic theory, these ℓ = 3 modes form F-orbital shells, which is the final type of orbital found to maintain a stable atom.
The CMB, whilst exhibiting an almost uniform temperature, exhibits a large area that is substantially colder than the average temperature. Various theories have been postulated, from a large invisible void of some kind, to a collision with a parallel universe. However, a far more simple solution is found if we consider that the universe is toroidal in nature. This cold spot can therefore be explained as the ‘pole’ of the torus field.
The implication is that the universe might not be expanding. As the 4D geometric universe can maintain its size due to its incompressible capacity. From the perspective of 4D, the universe is continuously creating and destroying itself instant after instant. Just as the hypercube forms a single 4D rotation, so one cube replaces the other in a continuous dance.
This also resolves another anomaly, as it has been calculated that the amount of matter in the universe appears to be greater than critical density. According to inflation theory, if the universe has too little matter, it will continue to expand on into infinity. If there is too much, then it will collapse in on itself. Yet the balance between space and matter appears so that the universe is flat. This was until data on the CMB from the Planck Satellite showed that the universe exhibits greater gravitational lensing than previously thought. This means the universe might be spheroid after all, or a closed system.
The CMB and gravity
Gravity still remains an unsolved problem. Numerous attempts to form a cohesive theory that will work at both the macroscopic level of the universe and at the microscopic scales of the atom. Yet none have thus far successfully solved the problem of quantum gravity. As shown previously, from the perspective of the 4D Aether, gravity is created by the distortion of the CMB by a large mass, that warps the fabric of spacetime around the object. We also find evidence of this when we consider the relationship of the election and proton to the CMB.
When the electron mass is multiplied by the surface area of the hydrogen atom, it produces a value that is ¼ that of the CMB frequency. We can express this as the fraction √8/4. We can also divide the CMB frequency by the speed of light, which will roughly equate to the fraction √8/3. When these values are multiplied together, the result is the Newtonian gravity constant (G).
((282.73 x10-3 / 4) x (282.73 x10-3 / c)) ÷ G = 0.9987
CMB Frequency = 282.73 GHz | c = 299792485 m/s | G = 6.674 x10-11
Here we can see an almost exact unity between the CMB, the surface of the hydrogen atom, the speed of light, and the gravitational constant. If this should be more than a coincidence, it would be the first time that a gravitational theory could address the quantum scale. Interestingly, this could be calculated without consideration of the strong or weak nuclear force. These theoretical forces are employed in order to explain why neutrons and protons are bound so tightly together, and to describe the interactions of electrons and other elementary particles. However, if these force interaction can be removed through the CMB relationship, then the only forces that remain are the electromagnetic, and gravitational force. All of which are fundamentally governed by the geometry of a 4th Dimensional Aether.
What is the Cosmic Microwave Backgound?
Whilst it maybe considered as the remnants of a Big Bang as proposed by the expansion theory, from the perspective of the 4th Dimensional it may also be considered as a 4D Aether. The CMB covers every unit of space throughout the universe. Its qualities are found to express the dimensions and energy of the quark, proton, electron, and hydrogen atom. From this view, the CMB is the prime cause for the quantised nature of reality, as a natural consequence of 4D rotation.
What does this mean?
The idea of an expanding universe where matter appears disconnected from the vacuum of space it occupies begins to become seriously challenged by the 4D Aether view. Instead, it proposes that at the smallest scales of reality, the 4th dimension is at work, quantising reality into moments of causal time. Therefore, the 4D Aether offers a new insight into the nature of time and space itself.
The correlation between the CMB and the atomic structure is so prevalent, that a 4D Aether Theory begins to make more sense, as it begins to solve the Wave-Particle paradox presented by quantum mechanics, and offers a completely new view of gravitational fields, electromagnetic waves, and the zero point energy field.
Carry On Learning
This article is part of our new theory on the 4D AETHER. browse more interesting post from the list below
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YOUR QUESTIONS ANSWERED
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How does the 4D Aether explain gravitation?
When we adjust our view towards the idea that every point of space in the universe is immersed in a background Aether, we begin to understand the interconnected nature of the reality. This includes the nature of gravity at both the quantum and universal scales. A 4D Geometry is formed of both a space and time function, as it goes through a 4D rotation. The rotational force in the universe is, in turn, related to the gravitational field. A 4D geometry, such as the hypercube, can fill space both uniformly and fractal. It can express the same qualities at the various scales found throughout reality. If we can identify the correct mechanism the manifests the gravitational field, then we may well be able to solve the quantum gravity problem.
What does this mean for our present theory of electricity?
From the perspective of the 4D Aether, all electrical generation is a consequence of disturbing the Aether Field. As this is a geometric construct, we find that many electrical components function due to their geometry as much as the material they are constructed of. For example, a resister is simply a coil of wire. Once wrapped, it will add more resistance into the circuit, based on the number of coil. I.e. geometry defines the electric field. Further development in methodologies of electrical generation might in future be found through the deeper consideration of the geometric arrangement of electrical circuits.