History of the Atom

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Holding an atom in the hands
Summary
KEY POINTS

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History of the Atom

The idea of the components and spatial configuration of the atom came a long way. Let’s go back into history to understand how the concept of the atom has developed over time.

Ancient origins

The concept of the atom dates back as far as 6th century BC of ancient India. Here the philosopher named Archarya Kanada was fascinated about grains of rice and suddenly saw the concept of matter itself being made of tiny particles, the Iota. 

 

A substance without parts must be the limit; and this is the Ultimate Atom.

 

The concept also appears in the ancient Greeks Atomos by philosophers Leucippus of Miletus & Democritus of Abdera, which is where we derive the modern word the Atom

Within Sacred Geometry, we find that this history has continued in the metaphysical plane with the concept of the Monad, which was equivalent of the God Particle

Plum Pudding Model

However, it wasn’t until we began to rediscover the electromagnetic field that things really began to shift. At that point we suddenly became aware of a new force that was surrounding us, which could produce light, and could move machines. And therefore, it became one of the key areas of study throughout the 1800s. 

In the modern day it started with Chemist John Dalton who came up with the Solid Sphere model that was extended by J.J. Thomson by the end of the 1800s who discovered the electron. This is when the first ideas arose that the atom was some sort of soup. Known as the Plum Pudding model, the atom was seen as a spherical ball of matter with tiny coins placed on the outside, similar to the existing model of Big Bang today. 

Rutherford Model

However, that was quite quickly disproven by Ernest Rutherford in 1911. In his experiment alpha particles were shot through a thin foil of gold. Most particles would pass straight through because of their very small waves-lengths. But sometimes they would be reflected, which suggested the existence of the atomic nucleus and the acknowledgement of the proton and the electron.

This established the idea that the atom is made from a central nucleus surrounded by electron shells, which were quantised into bands. All of the sudden, this meant there are places where the electron could be and other places where it could not be. 

This perplexed scientists for a while because they were wondering how an electron can jump in time-space into a higher shell and fall back down to release an electromagnetic wave to release its energy in quantised states. This is what Einstein had established with the photon, a quantized wave packet of energy, which was later on verified by Planck.

Bohr Model

In 1913, Niels Bohr developed a model that looked a little bit like our solar system, also known as the Planetary model or Bohr model. Its centre was made of protons, with positive charge, circulating tiny particles called electrons with a negative charge. This is the mainstream model that chemist still use today.

But one of the major problems was the question why the electron didn’t just loose its energy and just collapsed into the nucleus. What was it that was stopping the electron’s catastrophe?

Pilot Wave Model

The next postulation followed, which was the concept that the electron itself could be observed as a wave function. 

In 1924, Louis de Broglie developed the beginnings of the Pilot Wave model. This suggested that space itself was quantised due to the De Broglie wavelength. This would identify why certain electrons only appeared in certain shells based on harmonics.

This was a bit of a disruption, originally, because particle physicists had always assumed the electron was a particle. Yet, evidence revealed that they actually express wave qualities in a similar way that light could be observed as a particle or wave. Indeed, matter waves became an undeniable fact, when utilised this nature of matter in the development of electron microscopes to delve even deeper into the atom.

Uncertainty Principle

From the observations thereafter comes Heisenberg with his Uncertainty Principle. Coming from various matrix theories, he managed to develop a probability function for the electron. This meant that the wave aspect of the electron could now become a cloud of probability, within the Copenhagen interpretation.

The Copenhagen interpretation simply meant that an electron doesn’t exist in one state or another, but in all of its possible states at once, i.e. it cannot be determined until measured.

Schrödinger wave model

Shortly after that, another scientific genius called Erwin Schrödinger produced a series of equations that utilised the number i to collapse the electron cloud into orbitals that had particular orientations, which were named S, P, D, and F. And this interpretation is the interpretation that has been stuck until today. 

These discoveries revealed that the atom was geometric, but we never took the step away from the concept of probabilistic, i.e. ‘we don’t know’ to ‘we don’t know, but we can look at the area of probability’ to define the geometry of space. 

As the majority of the atom is empty space, it is the comprehension of space that can help us understand the universe. 

The Neutron

At the start of the 1930s, the neutron was discovered. It was not discovered through measurement, but it was through weighing the atom. And here, we have a particular strange conundrum. The proton was always considered to have a positive, and the electron a negative charge. Yet, the neutron had more mass than a proton, but no charge. 

As far as we are aware, this has never been fully solved outside of the view of geometry. Indeed, the geometry of the atom also explains the neutron configuration.

Copenhagen Interpretation

Shortly after the discovery of the neutron, the second world war broke out. And that war terminated with the dropping of the neutron or nuclear bomb, whereby the atom was split open, leading to an energetic devastation which silenced the world. And suddenly Albert Einstein’s theory of E = MC^2 became a truth in the minds of everybody. 

After that, the model of the atom, as put forward by the Copenhagen interpretation was instilled in all major universities, despite the fact that Albert Einstein himself was directly opposed to the model.

Albert Einstein famously quoted:

 

God does not play dice.

 

Schrödinger’s cat was invented by Schrödinger to show how ridiculous the concept of probability was in science. Yet, Bell’s theorem seemed to prove probability. However, under statistical analysis we see that this is not exactly the case as there are errors within his statistical argumentation.

Geometric Perspective

In contrast, when we observe reality from the perspective of space, it reveals much clearer how the elements of the periodic table function as a cohesive pattern of geometry. This revelation will bring us into greater alignment with the natural forms that are produced by the earth.

Understanding the atomic patterns of nature, we will be able to do the things that nature does to split water, create energy and live more harmoniously, and in balance with the world in which we live. 


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